About My Work






1  Humans became capable of safe and efficient mobility when the bare foot is interacting with naturally deposited ground through early bipedal hominids  natural selection over millions of years, and further through humans for 300,000 years. Contemporary humans retain these adaptations that largely operates through behavior mediated via plantar sensory feedback.

2  Footwear appear recently in the human story mainly as an expression of the ancient aesthetic tradition of body art through foot decoration. Social norms in Renaissance Europe encouraged all social classes to wear shoes for the first time in human history.

3  Nearly all footwear examples exact a cost in terms of health and efficient mobility caused mainly by insufficient plantar sensory feedback that results from an interface placed between plantar and support surface. This attenuates mainly plantar shear and vertical deformations which are adequate stimuli for plantar SAII mechanoreceptors. Also, this interface amplifies plane foot movement which further destabilizes. In this sensory poor environment, human behavior results in  acute and chronic overloading of foot structures in an attempt to attain optimal stability. Further, it has recently been found that footwear induced inadequate plantar load re-distribution when weight-bearing resulting in plantar skin discomfort that humans avoid through becoming sedentary. Consequently Renaissance Europeans were the first population to become sedentary. This sedentary lifestyle spread through the norms requiring universal footwear use advanced through colonization and cultural imperialism.

4  Humans are not biologically sedentary, therefore they prefer weight-bearing over sitting. Footwear use is the environmental constraint on weight-bearing that caused humans to become sedentary.

 This new information helps to explain an array of presently poorly understood contemporary health issues. Mitigation of the health consequences of sedentary behavior can be better addressed through knowing its cause. Further, the recent origin of sedentary behavior indicates that humans are poorly adapted to maintaining the semi-recumbent posture intrinsic to a sedentary lifestyle. This may explain common problems of distal colon motility. For example the distal colon distention caused by inadequate gravitational aid to distal colon motility caused by the sedentary lifestyle may account for the present near universal symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome,  diverticula formation and eventual diverticulitis. Further, this website identifies obesity as not inherent to humans, but rather a consequence of attenuated energy utilization from reduced weight-bearing time.

6  Gait disturbances caused by footwear are addressed in this website. Excessive stride length caused by footwear may for patellar tracking disorders such as patella dislocation, chondromalacia patella and  patellofemoral pain disorder. Poor sensory feedback provided by footwear accounts for falls and ankle spraining.

This website provides access to my original publications, and puts them into accessible form for both researchers and non-scientists. The ultimate goal of this website is to stimulate interest and thereby advance research in this area. Another objective is to encourage application of the principles presented here to primary prevention and injury treatment.